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What Is Forging?

A blacksmith forging an axe
Posted: November 30, 2019 at 8:16 am   /   by   /   comments (0)
A blacksmith forging an axe

Forging is a common technique used to shape metals. It uses localized and compressive forces that can help shape metals. It has been used since the time of the Mesopotamians. The process has undergone significant changes over different periods of time. As a result, the process has become more durable, faster and efficient. Today, forging is the most commonly used technique for shaping metals using hammering tools and forging presses. These are powered with compressed air, hydraulics, and electricity.

Different Types of Forging

According to, there are two main types of forging, hot forging, and cold forging.

Hot Forging

In hot forging, the metal is heated to a temperature above its recrystallization point. Metals are usually heated up to 2,300 degrees Fahrenheit during this process. Hot forging is commonly used as it decreases the amount of energy needed to shape the metal properly. With an increase in heat, the ductility of the metal increases and its yield strength decreases. This helps shape the metals easily and efficiently.

Cold Forging

In cold forging, metal is shaped at room temperature. There are many metals, such as steel, that don’t undergo forging at room temperature. Thus, cold forging cannot be used on them. However, cold forging leads to better product uniformity, contamination, surface finish, and dimensional control. There are many different techniques used in cold forging. These include extruding, bending, cold heading and cold drawing. The process of cold forging, however, requires more powerful equipment, hence the costs tend to go up.

Categories of Forging Process

There are specific forging processes used to forge metals. There are three main categories of forging:

  • Open die forging
  • Closed die forging
  • Press forging

Open Die Forging

Open die forging uses flat dies with no precut profiles. It allows the metals to freely flow anywhere other than the places where it touches the die. Open die forging is commonly used for shaping ingots before they go through secondary shaping techniques. It is also used for art smithing.

Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging is also commonly known as impression die forging. It uses molds to shape the metal. It is an expensive process as it requires high-end tools and equipment. The process, however, provides exceptional strength as compared to other methods of forging. It is commonly used in creating hardware tools and automobile components.

Press Forging

Compression is the basic technique used in press forging. With press forging, you can easily control and measure the compression rate of the metal. Press forging can be cold or hot forged, depending on your needs. There are also no limits to the size of the products you can create using press forging.

Forging has been used to shape metals for centuries. Many forging companies out there offer specialized forging services. From creating big materials to small ones, they use fine forging techniques that lead to the creation of perfect metal products for a variety of uses. They use state-of-the-art technology and the latest equipment and tools to forge metal into any shape they want.

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